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“Pygmalion Pastiche by Andy Fabo is of the Chromazone exhibition at Art Gallery, see story page 7.

Concordia gets Montreal's 1st Elderhostel

By Noel Meyer

Canada's population is getting older, and an increasing number of services are being created to cater to the needs of older peo-

A look at

ple. Concordia is part of this lat- ter trend. In addition to the University's pioneering work in welcoming mature students, the

Lonergan College

A place for those who want more than

vocational training

By Howard Shrier

Lonergan University College is one of Concordia’s most highly rated programs.

In a duplex on the edge of the Loyola campus, Lonergan offers faculty members and students a place to study values and apply them to their work.

A recent independent report touted Lonergan as one of North America’s leading institutes of its kind.

Faculty members are already applying for positions, well before the official invitation for submissions.

For all this, student enrolment has been disappointing. Students may have been intimidated by Lonergan’ s image as a ’'religion college’’, or by the three-year commitment required in the


Lonergan administrators are taking steps to make the program more attractive and accessible, to get students in the place. Once they're in, they usually stay.

Lonergan is one of several col- leges founded six years ago to give Concordia a more progres- sive image and boost enrolment.

It was named for Bernard Lonergan, Loyola alumnus and teacher, a reknowned Jesuit scholar and thinker. Its location and namesake may be the seeds for the image of a Jesuit front.

But Lonergan is decidedly non- denominational and _ inter- disciplinary. Its 15 fellows come from all fields chemists, social scientists, professors of literature See LONERGAN page 4

University has now agreed to become part of the world's Elderhostel system.

According to Recreation and Leisure professor Randy Swed- burg, who was instrumental in

‘bringing Montreal's first Elder-

hostel to Concordia, Elderhostel is an international organisation which puts individuals 60 years old and over on college and university campuses. It is based on the European tradition of

hosteling a combination of travel, inexpensive lodgings and learning.

The Concordia Elderhostel will be located on the Loyola campus. Included in the package are six nights dormatory ac- comodation, meals and three classes a day for five days. The Elderhostel program consists of a one week course, repeated twice, with room for 88 par- ticipants. The courses offered will be:'’Talking Computer Language’, '’The Natural and Human History of Mont-St. Hilaire’', and ''Montreal The World in a City’’. The program will start on May 27.

The program is to last from Sunday night to Saturday morn- ing. Based on double occupancy, the cost is $190.

Swedburg said that the Elder- hostel atmosphere is designed to See ELDERHOSTEL page 6


Capital Campaign Concordia University


Building together

Volume 7 Nan 8 February 9, 1984

Quebec to raise foreign student fees?

By Howard Shrier

Is Quebec really planning to raise foreign students’ fees again?

Rumors have been flying furiously since Nick Auf der Maur's Feb. 1 Gazette column reported Camille Laurin was considering doubling the current fees.

Later reports confirmed a study is ongoing, but the raise would be more moderate, perhaps 30%.

Rector John O’Brien has writ- ten Laurin to clear the air. ‘'I find it hard to know what credence to put to this report,’’ he wrote Feb. 2. ‘It is my assumption that were the Ministry seriously considering a change of this scale in the fee structure, there would be prior consultation with the universities."

He added that Concordia would protest such a raise: ‘‘It would result in more or less dry- ing up the flow of foreign students, which would hardly serve the interests of the Quebec government or people, or of the University."

Differential fees have already serverely reduced foreign students’ numbers at Concordia.

In 1977, Canadian and foreign

students alike paid $15 per credit, or $450 for a 30 credit program. The Canadian still pays $450, but a series of dif- ferential fee increases since 1978 have brought the foreign stu- dent's bill up to $4,350.

The foreign student population has thinned commensurately: from 9.1% in 1977, to less than four percent today.

The foreign student now pays 60% of his total education cost; the government reportedly wants to raise that in September to 80%, about $6,000.

There would be exemptions, as in the past, for students from countries (mainly French speak- ing) with bilateral agreements with Quebec, but the numbers would apparently be more stern- ly regulated by quotas.

There would also be exemp- tions for students of French literature and language.

These exemptions would cushion the blow only slightly at Concordia.

Opponents of differential fees point out the cultural enrich- ment foreign students bring to Canadian counterparts; the economic boost of their spen- ding; the contribution to Third See FOREIGN page 3

CUFA contract settlement expected

The University is eager to reach a settlement in the negotia- tions over the terms of a first contract with CUFA (Concordia University Faculty Association), according to Vice-Rector Academic John Daniel. He says the length of time that it has taken to reach agreement has been frustrating.

Arbitration between the two sides started in December 1982 although the arbitration board was formed in September 1982. Although agreement had been reached on many items in the contract, the two sides had to resort to arbitration on money- related items, i.e. direct salary, maternity leave, dental plan and so on.

Daniel believes the arbitration board headed by lawyer Jean-

Yves Durand will announce its findings soon. ''Once the con- tract has been handed down I wish faculty members to know that the University will process the amounts owing as soon as possible."

Reacting to Daniel's statement, CUFA President John Hill said: "On behalf of CUFA, I am delighted to have this assurance of the vice-rector. It's consonant with what we want.

‘I wish to point out, however, that the last arbitration hearing between the parties ended in late September, 1983. Any delays in holding meetings of the arbitral council were not caused by CUFA's nominee, Professor Terry Fancott. He made himself available for every meeting."'

Page 2 THE THURSDAY REPORT February 9, 1984

Journalism faculty

alarmed by Link injunction

To the Editor:

It is alarming to note that Mon- treal judges in recent months have granted two separate in- junctions against student news- papers, ordering them to stop publishing articles about certain faculty members. It is at least equally alarming that this has happened without much of an outcry from the city’s main- stream news media.

Whether The McGill Daily and The Link (of Concordia Universi- ty) have acted responsibly or not is not the issue and need not be discussed here.

What is at stake is their right and by extension, the right of all our newspapers to publish material they deem to be in the public interest.

In other words, the issue is one of principle, and the principle in question is the fundamental right of freedom of expression.

Ever since 1695, when the British Parliament allowed the censorship laws to lapse, free- dom of expression in the English-speaking world has meant that the press should not be subject to prior restraint.

The principle is clear and sim- ple. In a democratic society, the press must be free to provide all the news and information the public needs in order to exercise its democratic rights. The press scrutinizes the policies and ac- tions of public figures and brings to public attention any matter of public concern. But the press cannot perform this crucial func- tion if it is subject to prior restraint, if it is prevented from publishing anything simply because it may conflict with private or vested interests.

This is not to say that the press has a licence to act irresponsibly and can do so with impunity. Just like any individual Cana- dian, the press is subject to all the laws of the land and must ac- cept responsibility for its ac- tions. If, for instance, the press misrepresents the facts and damages a person's reputation, it should be sued for libel.

If The McGill Daily or The Link have acted irresponsibly, then that is the proper recourse a libel suit, not a restraining order.

As Judge Gerhard A. Gessell ruled in 1971 when he refused to stop the Washington Post from publishing its series on the Pen- tagon Papers: The Post might well have stood in ‘'serious jeopardy of criminal prosecu- tion," but that not an injunc- tion was the ‘‘only remedy’’ that the U.S. Constitution or Congress had provided.

In that instance, the Nixon ad- ministration persisted in its ef- forts, and did succeed through appeals in temporarily stopping

publication of the Pentagon Papers. But ultimately, the U.S. Supreme Court allowed the newspapers to proceed.

The tactic was employed again the United States more recently to try to stop The Progressive magazine from publishing detail- ed information about the hydrogen bomb. That article also was eventually published.

These efforts to impose prior restraint in the United States failed, but only because the publications involved were prepared to defend the principle of press freedom. It cost the Washington Post $70,000 in legal fees, and The New York Times spent $200,000 in its battle to

publish the Pentagon Papers. The student press does not have that kind of money and so far few other voices have been raised against the potentially serious erosion of press freedom that these injunctions represent. When the Royal Commission on Newspapers published its recommendations on the regula- tion of business practices in the newspaper industry, our press raised a great outcry. Today,

~ when a real threat to press free-

dom exists, there is only silence. Lindsay Crysler

Enn Raudsepp

Gloria Bishop

Journalism Program

Deplores anonymity of modest proposal

To the Editor:

The author of that anonymous ‘‘modest'’ proposal on re- structuring the Faculty of Arts and Science is cordially invited to please indicate his name.

Whether modest or not, no proposal is subject to considera- tion if its originator fails, as a minimum of common sense and

courtesy, to identify himself with it.

I deplore the publication of an anonymous proposal in The Thursday Report, even it Mr. Anonymous is known to the editor.

Klaus Herrmann Political Science

Power corrupts

To the Editor:

I, acrawler? Never in my life have I crawled before the powerful. ’’

: —Nietzsche

Sometimes I would like to be omniscient; not God of course, only fools aspire so high. And I would like to be omniscient for a special mission, made to measure and designed for specific occasions.

But what occasions? Certainly not to be indiscreet like the secret police or the FBI. After all, in my position, it is not worth having the secrets of anyone. I would only want to know simple facts which explain events that affect the daily of life of hun- dreds at our University.

Some might say such a power might endanger the community. But what danger lies in knowing the background of certain events? A man is dangerous only if he has power and in our democratic system most of us have no power at all beyond casting our vote, because unwill- ing to be indoctrinated by a party we finish by giving up even this consitutional right of casting a vote. Why? Once in a party we lose again our freedom to the ma- jority that governs in our stead.

For a long time academic com- munities were exempt or at least

less exposed to the kind of divi- sions political parties can be held responsible for. Not so at pre- sent. With the unionization of faculties the division between faculty and administration has been finalized clearly on political lines, i.e. the division is a divi- sion of power.

We have been put before a ‘fait accompli'’. Nevertheless, I always maintained that the union rather than the ad- ministration was to blamed for the existing climate of distrust. This stand could have been inter- preted as my siding with the ad- ministration and I do not want to hedge. I wanted to believe that carrying the burden of looking after the innumerable problems of this institution, its daily func- tioning and its long range plann- ing made the administration more reliable, more trustworthy than the union, because it was less politicized.

However, the latest events in the arbitration procedure dealt a blow to my illusion. I agree that arbitration was not the ad- ministration’s choice, but we have elected governments that pass laws regulating labour- management relations and living in a democracy we have to live with the system the majority has created for us. One of them is binding arbitration.

Marc Frigault

Institutional Research Officer

Marc Frigault calls his posi- tion as institutional research officer the ‘black box"’ of the administration. Although there's no limitation to the ‘what. ifs' with which he’s confronted, there is really no dark mystery surrounding his work.

The research officer handles requests from outside the University regarding data and operations. Of course, as one may suspect, gleaning that information from the University's varied _hierar- chical systesms and depart- ments requires tact and pa- tience. But Frigault crests the waves and overrides the pit- falls as best he can.

Approximately, two new projects a year come to Frigault. Recently, his work centered on the CUS (Concor- dia University Statistics) Book, which detailed student university finances. Current- ly, he's assembling data from Physical Resources concern- ing space and inventory.

Frigault was working for Physical Plant eight years ago when the Institutional Re- search Office opened. Ad- ministrative work was new to him, but it was a challenge, and for Frigault, who has a

Now it looks as if the persistent failure of the administration's representative to attend the meetings where the last part of the agreement could have been hammered out had been inten- tional and meant to delay what could not be stopped a collec- tive agreement imposed on our University.

Here comes my special request for omniscience: to know is not the same as to hear what excuse the other party produces in public; this may simply be politicing. To know is to know reality, that is, what lies behind the words, or the state of affairs that prevails before a statement is made. This is no omniscience misused. I wish to know why this delaying tactic is being used. Probably, or even certainly, I will never learn the truth. But it is easy to see the consequences: the administration's attitude served the purpose of the union because it justified its contention that we have to negotiate with force or we are at the mercy of the administration's power.

I suspect that the union is delighted with this new develop- ment because it .strengthens


by Philip Szporer


Bachelor's degree in Biology, this meant reorienting his life. ‘When I first started, I was working from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. My youth helped me withs- tand the pressure. The job- related stress eventually dissipated when I settled into

the job.’ He's now celebrat- ing the arrival of his one- month old daughter, and that too has made a big change in his life. In fact, life now gets very hectic, and he has little time to stop and think. However, once life settles down a little, he hopes to get back to his passions of cross- country skiing .and cabinet- making.

CUFA’s position and it brings more and more professors into the union.

But what about those who still like to act as academics, who shrink away from political power because they are convinc- ed ‘power corrupts'’ (Nietz- sche); who would like to main- tain a climate of good faith and equity that could serve the in- terest of an academic communi- ty, who cannot go along with the union and who can no longer trust the administration?

It is inevitable that such a climate will give birth to a new race of individuals, a race of op- portunists who submit themsel- ves to power, who have good character, who do not an- tagonize, who want happiness, who are masters in the art of compromise, in sum, who possess all the virtues that make small.

‘Alas! The time is coming when man will give birth to no more stars. Alas! The time of the most contemptible man is com- ing, the man who can no longer despise himself.'' (Nietzsche) Ernest Joos Philosophy

Charles Bélanger, AV

on January 27.

The Chinese Georgians’ Association at their highly successful symposi

Chinese variety show to benefit Capital Campaign

The Chinese Georgians’ Association surely must be one of the most active student associations in the University. On the heels of their successful symposium on Canada-Hong Kong relations, which attracted

over 230 participants and inter- national attention, the associa- tion is planning a variety show to benefit the University’s Capital Campaign.

The variety show will feature many acts: a violin solo; folk

at Universities ant in the following areas:

nd Some other American States . . Information and a | are now available se Academic + Office of the Vice-Rector,

Annex M, iS Room AD-121, Loyola Campy

40 February 4984


my um on Canada-Hong Kong relations held

song solo; modern dance; Chinese folk dance; pop solo; a dramatic act; a Chinese or- chestra; a 15-member Chinese chorus coming specially from Toronto; and recitals from tradi- tional instruments. Sponsored by 50 prominent members of the community, the variety show is 'the first time Chinese students have pooled their resources to contribute in a small way to university education in Canada,"' association president Roger Yuen said.

The variety show is scheduled to be held at the Hall Building's D.B. Clarke Theatre on February 17 at 7:30 p.m. Admission is $5. For tickets and information, call 879-4557.

February 9, 1984 THE THURSDAY REPORT Page 3

Congratulations to men's varsity hockey coach Paul Arsenault on becoming the fourth university hockey coach in North America to win 500 games. The milestone occurred on February 3 when his Stingers beat the University of Ottawa Gee-Gees 5-2. His career began in 1963 when he led the Sir George Williams Georgians to four consecutive OSLAA titles... The Ordre des comptables agréés du Québec has honoured Ac- counting professor Lawrence Bessner by naming him a FCA (Fellow Chartered Ac- countant) for his service to the chartered accounting pro- fession and to the communi- ty... Chemistry chairman Cooper Langford will pre- sent a seminar on photocatalysts for water treat- ment and water pollution to the Domtar Research Centre at Senneville on March 16... Stopping theft: Security ad- vises the University com- munity to lock your doors, desks and cabinets when ab- sent from the office. Security points out that equipment, materials, . personal belong- ings, such as handbags, wallets, briefcases may disap- pear within minutes if left unattended. Should a theft oc-

FOREIGN continued from page 1

World development; and the benefits Quebec can reap in the future.

‘Making higher education available to the future leaders of sO many (over 60) countries can be a great contribution to Quebec's business and other relationships,'' Dr. O'Brien wrote.

“One needs a mix,'’ said Charles Giguére, associate dean of Engineering and Computer Science. ‘‘It's more than pro- viding a token service to the world. A mix in cultural back- ground is part of one's education. ° :

“It certainly is a retrograde step,’ he added. ‘’But aside from

protesting when the time comes to protest, there's nothing much we can do."

While administrators await further details from Quebec, stu- dent advisors from Concordia, McGill, Université de Montréal, UQAM and Ecole Polytechnique met this week to share views and strategies.

Since foreign students have no voting rights, they need support from the community around them, said Elizabeth Morey, Concordia's international stu- dent advisor.

She was angered by a local radio show that depicted the fee increase as another PQ attack on Anglo institutions, an image generated by the exemptions

cur, call Security at 777 at Loyola, 4545 at the Hall Building and surrounding an- nexes, 4515 at Norris, and 8091 at the Visual Arts Building... The works of Painting professor Yves Gaucher are featured in an exhibition in the cultural cen- tre of Canada House in Lon- don, England... No more money: that's the message from the Visiting Lecturer's Committee. All the money allocated for visiting lecturers in the committee's 1983-84 budget has been spent. Those wishing to have support for speakers will have to wait un- til next year. (Those speakers who the commitee has already agreed to support will still be funded)... The Cam- pus Centre has set up a ''buy and sell'' advertising service. If you want to see an item or are looking for something specific, submit your ad in person at the Campus Centre. It's free. Deadline for Mon- day morning publication will be noon the preceding Fri- day... Welcome aboard to: Elizabeth Feger, secretary, Psychology; Sheila MacGowan, secretary, Education; Elizabeth Seymour, secretary, Translation. . .

which seem to favor the French institutions.

“Any protest must be more than an Anglo institution railing against the ° PQ government,” she said. ‘'That just won't work."

The Francophone universities are just as worried by the in- creases, she said, since the ex- emptions will still leave many of their foreign students unprotect- ed.

For some, however, the feeling of a bias persists. ‘'It's a system - that favors the Francophone world community,''’ said associated registrar Bruce Smart. They are not making Quebec a paradise for Anglophone students. That's very clear."

Page 4 THE THURSDAY REPORT February 9, 1984

@ © It now exists as one of the few and most successful endeavours of its kind in North American higher education. 9 9


continued from page 1

and history. Though founding head Sean McEvenue was a theologian and Jesuit, acting principal Michael Hogben is a chemist and agnostic.

Lonergan does not espouse Catholicism or any other doc- trine; rather it offers resources to aid individuals in their own search for meaning in their fields of study and their personal lives.

It is a place for those who want more than vocational training, for professors who will burn out unless they remember why a discipline attracted them in the first place, for students who will break if they have to memorize another text without the least chance of absorbing it.

How does a ''Classical NDG" duplex bring meaning to 15 pro- fessors and 40 students from perhaps as many fields.

The chief tool is the seminar. It is the axis of the program, the main event.

Each year, the fellows and students choose a thinker whose ideas have profoundly influenc- ed civilization. To date, they have been Lonergan himself, Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye, Carl Jung, and Machiavelli. This year's is Teresa of Avila, the 16th century Spanish writer, reformer and mystic who kept detailed accounts of her transcendental communication with God.

Next year's choice is Charles Darwin.

From each writer, one major text is selected (Darwin's Origin of the Species, for example). And that is the year's work.

Every other Monday, in a room on the ground floor of 7032 Sherbrooke St. West, fellows and students work through a few pages of text, led by a visiting scholar expert in that field.

When one book is the basis of a year-long course, it is read in detail, until it is not merely superficially and glibly skimm- ed, but truly absorbed and understood.

The text is worked over the angles of the many disciplines represented.

Faculty and students find it in- tellectually inspiring, challeng- ing, renewing. Distinguished auditors have included Russell Breen, Don Taddeo and Aloysius Graham.

This is the way to learn, says Sean McEvenue, who brought the college through faculty coun- cil and Senate and served as prin- cipal until this year. ‘'read the work of a few geniuses and do it seriously, rather than this silly fashion of reading Plato's

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Republic over the weekend and discussing it on Monday."

Or as Michael Hogben put it: “It's in contrast to other styles of education where you take western Civilization in 24 weeks. If it's Tuesday, this must be the Renaissance."

Regarding next year's selec- tion, McEvenue added: ‘Most people read texts on evolution written by some nitwit who tabulated the results of Darwin's studies. Well, don't read the nit- wit. Read the genius." :

Like Talmudic scholars spen- ding hours on a phrase, Lonerga- nians do more than stuff data in- to skulls already crammed. They bull through information to the meaning beyond.

Along with the seminar, they can take courses in Method, which also illuminates the values integral in all pursuits.

‘When you set up a method, you're implicitly setting up values. We are trying to unravel the value structure of a par- ticular discipline as explained in its so-called method,'’ Michael Hogben said.

Lonergan is clearly not the place for someone looking for the shortest route to the job mar- ket. It places value on knowledge for its own sake. It is demanding, but, as Sean McEve- nue points out, the demands of struggling to understand the work of civilization's great thinkers will make for im- pressive intellectual growth.

Even if one disagrees withe ideas discussed in the seminar, one cannot dismiss them. McEvenue says he hated Machiavelli's ideas, but admits he had to understand them before he could repudiate them.

Whatever its demands, Loner-

‘Arezz0, Ttaly

Learn Italian this summer in Italy

The scenes in the above photographs are located in the charming city of Arezzo in nor- thern Italy. Arezzo is only a few hours away from such wondrous places as Florence, Rome, Siena and other beautiful cities to visit in Northern Italy. Arezzo is also the home of Concordia's sum- mer school in Italy.

From May 9 to June 21, 1984, the University is again offering courses in introductory, in- termediate Italian and Italian Civilization. By the time the courses are finished, students

should be speaking Italian rather well, according to Italian language professor Bruno Villata. He notes that because students live with a family in Arezzo, their language skills are enhanced because of this natural contact with the Italian language. For the first time this year, there are a number of scholarships worth about $250 available, according to Villata. (For more information, contact him at 482-0320 local 436).

The approximately $2000 fee covers: roundtrip transportation to and from Arezzo; tuition for a six-credit course; room and board with an Italian family; a one day excursion to Florence; an overnight stay in Rome; ad- mission to municipal libraries, museums, swimming pool and sports centre; and unlimited transportation. on the public transport system.

For travel and registration in- formation, call Doreen Bates at 879-8436.

gan seems an unqualified suc- cess in intellectual terms. William Bergquist, Director of the Center for Organizational Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, assessed Lonergan's first five years in March.

“It now exists as one of the few and most successful endeavours of its kind in North American higher education,"’ Bergquist wrote.

‘Faculty members are reading outside their disciplines and are conversing with colleagues in other fields,’ he noted.

Bergquist dispelled the illusion that Lonergan is a ‘‘Jesuitical enclave that is seeking to preserve old, outmoded ideas and values,'’ seeing it instead as offering faculty the resources for "profound and_ individualistic search for meaning, values and context in contemporary society, as well as in their own personal lives."'

Both students and faculty seemed to be able to bring their work at Lonergan to bear on their work in their own discip- lines.

The success of Lonergan can be seen in the fact that most fellows have renewed their three year terms (they can renew once and then must leave for at least a year before re-applying).

It is in the student population that the problems begin. There are 40 students right now, and while Lonergan administrators don't want to lose the intimacy of a small institute or the fairly low student-teacher ratio (about

6:1), they realize that Concordia wants to know what it's getting for its money's worth.

Following suggestions by Pro- fessor Bergquist, Lonergan has made the following changes:

The seminar has been opened to students (it was previously for faculty, who then discussed the material with students) and has been made a six-credit course.

A minor is now offered, com- prised of the seminar course, Method courses, and other Lon- ergan-approved, cross-related subjects.

Students can now try the col- lege for a year, whereas before they had to commit for three years straight out of CEGEP,

which was a little like the Peace Corps.

And the publicity material downplays religion and em- phasizes values.

Some results are already in, January enrolment was double that of 1983, and applications are further increasing, according to Hogben.

Plans are even being made to knock out a wall in the seminar room, to expand it from its 55-person capacity, to something more like 80 to 100.

“Any more than that would clog the system,'’ Hogben said, ‘but we'll worry about that when we come to it.”’




The above position becomes available to full-time faculty for a three-year term beginning on June 1, 1984. Nominations, applications and briefs relevant to the selection process will be received until February

27th, 1984.

For further information about this position, please contact Provost Martin Singer at 879-7200 or at H-401,

SGW Campus.

February 9, 1984 THE THURSDAY REPORT Page 5

The Liberal Arts vs. employment- related education

The Thursday Report is reprin- ting an article published by Liberal Arts College Frederick Krantz in the ‘Point of View” section of The Chronicle of Higher Learning.

The growing orientation at universities toward ‘‘employment-related educa- tion'’ involves not only the teaching of immediately marketable" skills, but also the advent of programs and even disciplines that have little to do with the traditional nature and purposes of undergraduate education. A consequence of the ever-tighter links forged bet- ween business, government, and education since World War II, these changes also involve disturbing revisions in the inter- nal structure of universities themselves. As a result, universi- ty curricula reflect an uneasy mix of inherited ‘‘critical'’ pur- pose, pressure for pre- professional and_technical- practical training, and general expectations of ‘’entitlement'’ based on conferral of degrees.

Once-dominant liberal-arts or arts-and-science faculties have been hit hard by this process. Nevertheless, a random sampl- . ing of college-catalogue prefaces confirms that most institutions remain committed to some form of what can be termed the ‘'no- ble vision” of liberal-arts educa- tion. It is a vision that descends from the Renaissance seculariza- tion of the medieval liberal-arts curriculum, which turned on the affirmation that the study of “humane letters’ broadly defined today to include science and the social sciences as well as history and the humanities perfected the individual morally as well as intellectually and readied him for civic life. Under- graduate liberal-arts education, however buffeted by recent cur- ricular shifts, remains the key- stone of the university and is still seen as logically preceding nar- rower career preparation. But the earlier consensus that its basis is a common educational experience through which the ‘‘unlettered'' are culturally enriched and aided in becoming capable of personal autonomy and civic responsibility has broken down at many institutions.

Ideal and reality are in often tense, if not openly adversarial, relation. The modern university is not the medieval universitas (a term derived from the Latin word meaning guild, and imply- ing a corporate community of “masters'' agreed upon the best course of study for its student apprentices). Universities are no longer homogeneous entities in- formed by a common cur- riculum and common purposes. They are composed of diverse and autonomous faculties, which are themselves increas- ingly heterogeneous mixtures of independent and often unrelated departments. (Even the depart- ments are frequently divided

into subdisciplines and semi- autonomous fiefs constituted by researchers directing large, ex- ternally financed projects.)

The liberal-arts college, which once was the university, is in- creasingly marginal within it. Displaced externally by ‘'profes- sional’ sectors it once contained law, engineering, medicine, commerce, fine arts and divid- ed internally by departments competing for students and resources, its faculty has fallen on hard times.

By acceding too readily to stu- dent demands in the 1960's, to the advent of ‘'managerial’’ academic administration in the 70's, and to the role of external financing agencies public and private in setting education priorities, faculty members in the liberal arts have permitted, even hastened, their colleges’ decline.

Between catalogue-statement pieties, then, and the reality of a fragmented, incoherent cur- riculum and a divided, dispirited faculty, lies a vast distance. Former ‘general education"’ re- quirements, even in the most diluted form, have been done away with at most institutions. They have given way, in part, to the professionalization of under- graduate education, through pro- grams predicated on a commit- ment to postgraduate study not always shared by many of the students. At the same time, “practical'’ programs, offering technical and on-the-job training and the promise of immediate employment after graduation, have proliferated.

Within many departments, a “pick your own" approach, replete with annually changed ‘‘quickie'' courses aimed at a maximum number of student ‘‘markets,'' has become increas- ingly common. The result is a ‘supermarket curriculum,”’ catering to the special interests of even the most trendy consumers.

The chaotic contemporary liberal-arts curriculum addresses everything except the students’ real and enduring needs. The consequences of the chaos are by now so familiar that they are commonplaces: students unable to write or think analytically; culturally impoverished students who are largely un- familiar with history and the ma- jor works of their own let alone non-Western traditions; students, victimized by illusory promises, unable to find work after graduation, or, if they find it, stuck in entry-level positions because they lack basic ex-

pressive and analytical skills.

The waste, in terms of lost op- portunities and undeveloped abilities, is immense; in the long run, it is the nature and quality of our society that will bear the brunt of it.

It is painful to find faculty members so unaware of the nature of their calling as not only

to accept that waste, but even to defend it, often in the name of their students’ supposed "freedom of choice'’ a euphemism sometimes translatable into the fear that even partial restriction of the curricular free-market economy

programmatically given over to free discovery and the critical study of social, cultural, and scientific meaning. The primary goal of such study is not in- strumental; it involves not only the development of new knowledge, but also the acquisi-

@ © The chaotic contemporary liberal-arts curriculum addresses everything except the students’ real and enduring needs. 9 9

might hurt enrolment in their departments. There are even some faculty members who ac- tually embrace the current situa- tion, denouncing the idea of demanding general education as “elitism.''

Wholesale dismantling of pre- professional and_technical- practical programs is not the issue, nor is it either practicable or necessary. A certain propor- tion of such work, when well structured and _ stimulating, serves real needs and acts as useful leaven within the under- graduate curriculum. Students have a right to training in their areas of special interest and to expectations of some concrete benefit from their years of study.

What is at issue is, rather, where the curricular center of gravity should lie: in an ap- proach to learning that assures that a major componet of all students’ work will be designed to insure their intellectual growth, and that views depart- mental disciplines as means, not ends; or in an approach that, ig- noring the general purposes of undergraduate education, reifies current divisions and is at best one-dimensional, often in- coherently eclectic, and at worst unashamedly opportunistic.

True education is not in the first instance a socially useful commodity; as academics teachers, scholars, and intellec- tuals we are here not to pro- duce undergraduate trainees as replacement cogs for govern- ment and industry, but to en- courage our students to become informed, thinking, and sen- sitive human beings.

Literacy and rhetorical skill, byproducts of a Renaissance education, were of course ‘marketable’; they were not, however, what that education was about. The B.A. and B.S. degrees today still confer mark- ed lifetime-earnings advantages on their holders; nevertheless, such advantages are not what we are here to confer. Career preparation and the pursuit of special technical competencies may rightly occupy much of our students’ time; they are not, nor should they be allowed to become, the fundamental raison d‘étre of a university education.

The liberal-arts college or arts